SP2 - Just Transition and Governance of the Energy Transition


The mission of SP2 is to identify and address the necessary changes in the governance structures of the energy system at all levels to make the Energy Transition (ET) a participatory and inclusive process able to meet the climate change targets, jointly with the empowerment of citizens and vulnerable groups and the satisfaction of the energy needs for all.

 Areas of intervention SP 2 works on:

  • Characterization of the multi-level governance structure and regulatory frameworks for the ET; 
  • Transformative governance of the ET;
  • Democratizing the energy system, securing engagement and empowerment of people;
  • Energy justice, equity and social inclusion.


  • Provide a comprehensive characterization of the (multi-level) governance structure of energy system (EU, national, local) and the role of power relations among all energy system stakeholder groups;
  • Provide guidance for the governance of the transition process, to identify and address the regulatory gaps that hamper the ET (e.g., regulatory sandboxes) and to support the policy coordination at EU and member states levels;
  • Identify effective engagement strategies able to contribute to the actual empowerment of citizens in terms of awareness and participation; 
  • Identify and measure social impacts of ET with specific attention to the definition and measurement of energy poverty, develop respective countermeasures and subsistent provision of energy services for all in the face of digitalization and economic crises.
SP 2 main references

Carley, S., Konisky, D.M., 2020. The justice and equity implications of the clean energy transition. Nat. Energy 5, 569–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-020-0641-6

DellaValle, N., Czako, V., 2022. Empowering energy citizenship among the energy poor. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 89, 102654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2022.102654

Gladkykh, G. et al. (2024). White Paper on the Just Energy Transition. EERA aisbl, Brussels. https://www.eera-set.eu/component/attachments/attachments.html?task=view&id=1518 

Gürtler, K. (2023). "Justice in energy transformations as a spatial phenomenon: A framework for analyzing multi-dimensional justice claims." Energy Research & Social Science 105: 103277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2023.103277

Jenkins, K., McCauley, D., Heffron, R., Stephan, H., Rehner, R., 2016. Energy justice: A conceptual review. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 11, 174–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2015.10.004

McCauley, D., V. Ramasar, R. J. Heffron, B. K. Sovacool, D. Mebratu and L. Mundaca (2019). "Energy justice in the transition to low carbon energy systems: Exploring key themes in interdisciplinary research." Applied Energy 233-234: 916-921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.005

Pellegrini-Masini, G., Pirni, A., Maran, S., 2020. Energy justice revisited: A critical review on the philosophical and political origins of equality. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 59, 101310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2019.101310

Williams, S. and A. Doyon (2019). "Justice in energy transitions." Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 31: 144-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2018.12.001


Manfred Paier SP 2 Coordinator